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Implementing the Assessment Tool

One of the primary goals of creating a model of player motivations using factor analysis was to produce an assessment tool. The questions and response options used are presented here. The following design issues with surveys are also listed to explain the design of the assessment tool.

1) Use 5 points for uni-polar scales and 7 points for bi-polar scales. Middle (neutral) response options help.

Birkett, N. J. (1986). Selecting the number of response categories for a Likert-type scale. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association 1987 Annual Meetings, Section on Survey Research Methods.

Cox, E. P. (1980). The optimal number of response alternatives for a scale: A review. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 407-422.

Komorita, S. S., & Graham, W. K. (1965). Number of scale points and the reliability of scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 25, 897-995.

2) Fully label rating points. Extreme options help anchor scale. Use magnitude scaling studies to label options.

Albaum, G., & Murphy, B. D. (1988). Extreme response on a Likert scale. Psychological Reports, 63, 501-502.

Bass, B. M., Cascio, W. F., & O'Connor, E. J. (1974). Magnitude estimations of expressions of frequency and amount. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 313-320.

Bendig, A. W. (1953). The reliability of self-ratings as a function of amount of verbal anchoring and of the number of categories on the scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 38-41.

Lichtenstein, S., & Newman, J. R. (1967). Empirical scaling of common verbal phrases associated with numerical probabilities. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 563-564.

3) Use construct specific response options to combat acquiescence and vagueness of "strongly agree" - "strongly disagree" type options.

Blankenship, A. B. (1940). The influence of the question form upon the response in a public opinion poll. Psychological Record, 3, 345-422.

Couch, A., & Keniston, K. (1961). Agreeing response set and social desirability. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 175-179.

Hitlin, R. (1976). On question wording and stability of response. Social Science Research, 5, 39-41.

McClendon, M. J. (1989). Acquiescence: A test of the cognitive limitations and question ambiguity hypotheses. Paper presented at the 1989 meetings of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.

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