Implementing the Assessment Tool
1) Use 5 points for uni-polar scales and 7 points for bi-polar scales. Middle (neutral) response options help.
Birkett, N. J. (1986). Selecting the number of response categories for a Likert-type scale. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association 1987 Annual Meetings, Section on Survey Research Methods.
Cox, E. P. (1980). The optimal number of response alternatives for a scale: A review. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 407-422.
Komorita, S. S., & Graham, W. K. (1965). Number of scale points and the reliability of scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 25, 897-995.
2) Fully label rating points. Extreme options help anchor scale. Use magnitude scaling studies to label options.
Albaum, G., & Murphy, B. D. (1988). Extreme response on a Likert scale. Psychological Reports, 63, 501-502.
Bass, B. M., Cascio, W. F., & O'Connor, E. J. (1974). Magnitude estimations of expressions of frequency and amount. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 313-320.
Bendig, A. W. (1953). The reliability of self-ratings as a function of amount of verbal anchoring and of the number of categories on the scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 38-41.
Lichtenstein, S., & Newman, J. R. (1967). Empirical scaling of common verbal phrases associated with numerical probabilities. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 563-564.
3) Use construct specific response options to combat acquiescence and vagueness of “strongly agree” - “strongly disagree” type options.
Blankenship, A. B. (1940). The influence of the question form upon the response in a public opinion poll. Psychological Record, 3, 345-422.
Couch, A., & Keniston, K. (1961). Agreeing response set and social desirability. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 175-179.
Hitlin, R. (1976). On question wording and stability of response. Social Science Research, 5, 39-41.
McClendon, M. J. (1989). Acquiescence: A test of the cognitive limitations and question ambiguity hypotheses. Paper presented at the 1989 meetings of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.
To speed up load-times on multi-page articles, comments are now only loaded on the last page of an article.