Current Issue: Vol. 7-1 (03/09/2009)



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DRAVEN: HOSTILE ARSENAL`Crusade GUARDIANS PierceTheVeins Fenris Mastermind Vengeance LEGION ELITE Imperial SUPERIOR Descendants REVENGE AllStars CONQUEROR CONQUEST Renegades Celestial Beings Enrage ... [go]

Ashraf Ahmed : real-world context can be inserted into a virtual world, effectively turning the virtual world into a forum for real-world contexts. ... [go]

Roflmaodoodoodadoodoo: I didn't get it from the generator, but I saw it in Arathi Basin and thought it was the best ... [go]

Keesha: In awe of that aneswr! Really cool! ... [go]

Bobbo: This does look promising. I'll keep cmoing back for more. ... [go]



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Index of Journal Articles and Conference Papers

For other researchers who are looking for published material relevant to MMOs that they can cite, here is a list of my journal articles and conference papers that I will keep updated. I will provide brief summaries for each to make it easier to pick out what is relevant for you. The digital copies of these papers are also provided for easy access. All articles here, except for the book chapter, are peer-reviewed publications. A list of all my academic publications can be found in my CV.

Yee, N. (2006). The Demographics, Motivations and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively-Multiuser Online Graphical Environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15, 309-329. (pdf)

This is a three-part paper that has much of the earlier demographic and usage data. If you need a paper for age, gender, and usage breakdown of users, this is the most relevant paper of mine to cite.

Yee, N. (2006). The Psychology of MMORPGs: Emotional Investment, Motivations, Relationship Formation, and Problematic Usage. In R. Schroeder & A. Axelsson (Eds.), Avatars at Work and Play: Collaboration and Interaction in Shared Virtual Environments. (pp. 187-207) London: Springer-Verlag. (pdf)

A book chapter that provides an overview of MMOs with an emphasis on relationships and motivations, but with a broader focus and provides more narrative data than the Presence (2006) paper.

Yee, N (2007). Motivations for Play in Online Games. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 9, 772-775. (pdf)

This is the more recent 10 component model of player motivations. An earlier 5 factor model is presented in the Presence (2006) paper.

Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2007). The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on Behavior. Human Communication Research, 33, 271-290. (pdf)

A paper covering two experimental studies on how our avatars change our behaviors in virtual environments. We often think of avatars as things we create and customize, but our avatars change us in turn.

Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Nickell, E., and Moore, R.J. (2006). "Alone Together? Exploring the Social Dynamics of Massively Multiplayer Games." Proceedings of CHI 2006, pp.407-416. (pdf)

This was the CHI 2006 paper that came out from my research at PARC with my colleagues there. In this paper, we argue that the "social" nature of MMOs may have been over-estimated. We present analysis of longitudinal data of groups and guilds to suggest that many players enjoy the "alone together" aspect of MMOs.

Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Nickell, E., Moore, R. (2007). The life and death of online gaming communities: a look at guilds in World of Warcraft. Proceedings of CHI 2007, 839-848. (pdf)

This was the second CHI paper coming from the PARC PlayOn Project. In this paper, we looked at guild metrics and in particular what factors were most predictive of long-term guild survivability.

Williams, D., Ducheneaut, N., Li, X., Zhang, Y., Yee, N., Nickell, E. (2006). From Tree House to Barracks: The Social Life of Guilds in World of Warcraft. Games and Culture, 1, 338-361. (pdf)

In this study, we interviewed a representative sample of WoW players to map out a typology of players and guilds.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Urbanek, M., Chang, F., Merget, D. (2007). The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments. The Journal of CyberPsychology and Behavior, 10, 115-121. (pdf)

In real life, our social interactions are guided by well-known psychological rules. For example, when people get too close to us, we avert our gaze to lower the intimacy (i.e., the elevator effect). But do these rules transfer into virtual worlds? In this paper, we collected data from Second Life to answer this question.

Yee, N. (2006). The Labor of Fun: How Video Games Blur the Boundaries of Work and Play. Games and Culture , 1, 68-71. (pdf)

A short paper on how complex play can be in MMOs and talking more broadly about the intersection of work and play in virtual worlds.

Posted on August 29, 2006 | Comments (36) | TrackBack (0)


thank you for all your hard work. i am a sociology and geology major at the university of tennessee at martin. i am citing a great deal of your literature for a paper focusing on world of warcraft. your pioneering has made my paper possible. maybe i will be able to compound upon something you have missed. if so, i will send you my paper.

also avid WoW player

Posted by: shalaine myers on November 10, 2006 4:37 AM

Mr. Yee,
I am very intersted in your research I was referred to your website by Maressa Orzack and my inquiry inquiry is prompted by a research paper I am doing on video gaming addiction and the impact it has on children. I am also an addiction specilaist and have worked in the field for many years. The articles I am most
interested in are the following; "Understanding and Dealing with Gaming Problems: A Q and A with a therapist" and the article titled "The Treouble with "Addiction". I also interested in any information or empirical data on the neuro-chemical impact that gaming has on indivdiuals. I wish I would have found your web site sooner, unfortunately I am almost done with the research collection phase of my paper and would appreciate any support you might be able to offer in acquiring the articles I menetioned.
Thanks Patrick A. Wright, CASAC

Posted by: Pat Wright, CASAC on December 14, 2006 7:44 AM

I'm very interested in your work im currently a student at ETSU. If you wouldn't mind I would like to read your paper. I have been playing WoW for almost 2 years now and I would like to read what you have concluded about this addictive life taking MMORPG. ~ Thank you ~

Posted by: brandon on February 28, 2007 3:13 PM

give a link for your paper shalaine myers ~~~~~~

Posted by: .. on February 28, 2007 3:16 PM

Hello! I am a first year sociology student from Romania and I had an assignment to make a research project on a topic of choice. Being a WoW player myself, I thought of researching the way MMORPGs and especially WoW influence players' social life. I was extremely happy to be directed to your page and get so much valuable theoretical support! I was so thrilled that a researcher took this subject as seriously as it deserves, as my colleagues regarded my topic with a certain contempt, they didn't see it as "academic enough". I would like to make an ample study someday concerning this wonderful society that is crystalizing and developing before our eyes (a process that a sociologist could only dream to witness), creating its own norms and developing its own language, and I hope to enlist your aid in this beautiful, yet difficult task. I wonder if I could hope for a minute of your time if I e-mailed you a couple of questions and ideas I had on the matter?

Posted by: Ioa on April 16, 2007 2:08 PM

Nick!! This is an amazing site... I'm doing a paper comparing game addiction to drug addiction for med school and I can't believe the amount of reliable data you've collected. Thanks for the running start... Looking forward to seeing more great things from you in the future =)

Posted by: Michele on April 22, 2007 4:40 PM


I'm a second year business student majoring in finance and economics and i'm doing a research paper on online gaming for one of my units. Just wanted to say thanks for such an awesome resource of journals that you've provided. Keep it up!

Posted by: Bing on May 8, 2007 8:08 AM

Greetings Mr.Yee! I'm a student of Saint-Petersburg State Universiy, faculty of sociology, department of sociolgy of communication and culture. Maybe you can help me? What is problematic of MMOG from point of sociology?

Posted by: Laz Dee on June 16, 2007 3:20 PM

Laz - What's problematic is your assumption that there is anything problematic about MMOs to begin with. If that is the unstated premise of your agenda, how will you be able to conduct balanced research?

Posted by: Nick Yee on June 16, 2007 3:28 PM

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Posted by: aezsoixqah on June 19, 2007 7:53 AM

Hi Nick-
Awesome research, definitely a front runner in the empirically-impoverished realm of research on New Media. I'm interested in user characteristics that fall along the lines of learning disabilities/cognitive processing deficits. ANY data arise from your 30,000+ unique user data set that might help examine how folks in that demographic are helped/hindered in the virtual worlds of MMORPGs? I'm especially interested in this facet with respect to adoption of MMORPGs for pedagogical purposes.

Posted by: Beth Post on August 31, 2007 3:58 PM


Amazing site. I'm a grad student looking at masculinity in MMOs, and when I found your site I was ecstatic to see all the work you've already done. Great job, keep it up!

Posted by: Jeremy on September 2, 2007 9:07 AM

I want to thank Nick Yee for all his job. I'm italian and i'm writing a thesys about the structural characteristics of mmorpg which lead to addiction...
in italy we have no material at all...
thank you again..

Posted by: camilla on September 27, 2007 5:31 AM

hi mr. yee!

im a first year students of communications from Costa Rica and i get to your site because im really interested in studying the behavior of MMORPG players. Your site has been really useful to me. Congrats and thanks!

Posted by: ivon on October 9, 2007 4:31 PM

This is fantastic! I'm putting together a project specifically about the motivations for gender switching in MMOG's and some of what you've done here is work I can refer to. Thanks for the ton of work you've done.

Posted by: Beverly on December 2, 2007 2:44 PM

Wow, this page is truly amazing. I am doing a research project at Western Kentucky University about leadership in MMO's and how leaders in MMO's have the same qualities, image, and responsibilities as managers and CEO's of RL businesses. When I came across all this information, it made me so happy knowing that there are people in this world who see mounds of potential in the study of MMO's. Thanks to everyone who contributed anything to this site.


Posted by: Kalu on December 10, 2007 10:43 AM

I am a retired teacher..whose son plays Wow...and now ...I do as well! The gaming world is both intrigueing and disconcerting. I thought that I had mastered most of the social interactions possible in the REAL WORLD...but this gaming world presents a whole new "set".
Thank you for the work you are doing to explore the dynamics of gaming. It is important work, that may have some influence on an entire world of gamers. F 47

Posted by: Zermata on December 11, 2007 7:29 AM

Thank you mr Yee!

I´m studying education and writing my final paper about WoW and highschool students motivation. Your research is of great value for my work.

//Anneli from Sweden

Posted by: Anneli on December 14, 2007 2:36 AM

big surprise mr. Yee, ur help is helpin me so much.. like my fellow from other part in the world.. there's only few supporting theory that help us in the field..

im lookin forward to catch ur step, watch out for me.. haha..



Posted by: Ashy on March 14, 2008 2:36 AM

Thanks, Mr. Yee

Not only have you put in the hard work but you have been so kind so as to make your references, not only available, but so easy to access... I thought it was christmas when I found this site.

It is a very useful site for many people including myself who is studying cyberethics. There are so many issues to investigate that this site makes them easy to sort out.


Posted by: Milly on April 1, 2008 3:15 AM

Working on a Mcom on Second Life and the issues withing (and boy are there some issues) .. but i have to say best site ever!

nice to find good work in one site ... So cheers to you good sir!

and if your down my way i'll buy you a beer!

Otago University NZ

Posted by: Mark on May 24, 2008 5:21 AM

I am a PhD digital art student at the University of Belgrade, Serbia. I write a paper about parallel worlds of MMORPGs for my exam. This is indeed the most useful source of information about this subject.
Thank you,

Posted by: Marina on June 19, 2008 3:26 AM

Thank you and very good work, which I've use for the proposal of a new MMO being developed at my company. From a corporate perspective, I think the demographics you've done are very important, especially in understanding the difference in appeal between men and women players. It should have a definite affect on the design of new games


Posted by: Jason on July 19, 2008 12:55 AM

Hey, great stuff. I'm a counselling student, way down in New Zealand. I'm researching sleep patterns in teenage MMORPG players - as NZ's timezone means that our players are often online instead of sleeping. I'm fascinated now and looking forward to future research and discussions. Will bookmark your site. Thanks,

Posted by: Kyla on July 24, 2008 2:16 AM

Hi all!
Nice site!


Posted by: glinnizolvilt on October 1, 2008 3:50 AM

Thank you for all of your hard work! I'm a student of communication and media and an avid MMOG player so for me this site is a treasure trove. I will most likely be citing a lot of your work in my latest paper on MMORPG culture and I will gladly send you a copy if I stumble upon any worthwhile conclusions.

Thanks again,

Posted by: Ivan on December 21, 2008 12:24 PM

I am a first year college student at NCSU my course of study is computer science and tomorrow i'm giving a speech for my COM 110 class on the Psychology of gaming, I have just recently have found this website and I must say I am extremely impressed with the amount of credible information you have derived, thanks and keep up the amazing good work.

Posted by: Adam on February 24, 2009 7:24 PM

Dear Mr. Yee

I am a first year college at University of Regina Carmeli here in Philippines. I am doing a research about the negative effects of computer games in the youth. would you please send me a copy of the Daedalus project that youve made? You know, we're lacking of the books of where we can find it. Please... We really need to accomplish it as soon as possible.

Thank you for helping us. These really will make our research a success.

Posted by: angelique on February 26, 2009 10:37 PM

I am a mom of a teen girl who love WOW. Your site has provided me insight to the deeper issues of MMO games. I greatly appreciate your work.

Posted by: drm on November 8, 2009 6:20 PM

Thank you for making you work accessible for students all over the world. I'm currently writing my master's thesis on guild-membership and values in WoW and your publications have helped a great deal.

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Posted by: Pymnadumbally on March 21, 2010 8:12 PM

Thanks for this index. It's great to have papers centrally located that all focus on my own research interests.

Posted by: Tom on February 17, 2011 5:04 AM

Congratulations Nick this is an amazing site, thanks for facilitate us your information, I'm a mexican student of psychologist and I'm doing a project about the consequence to play a mmorpg (wow) I'm so happy to see so much people, psychologists sociologist, doctors... doing projects about mmorpgs, it means that the virtual worlds have so much information... in others words... how they are really "worlds" waiting for being uncovered

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Note: To decrease potential comment spam, comments with a link element will be moderated and will not appear immediately. Comments with more than one link are junked automatically. With regards to content, comments that contain profanity, slurs, or similar words may be censored or deleted entirely. Also, posts that are simply trolls, flames, or personal attacks have a good chance of being removed. The same applies to posts requesting character trades or asking for game-specific help.


Tribal design by snoopydoo. Crusader graphic by Gravity. All other materials available at The Daedalus Project are copyright 2003-2006 by Nick Yee.