Ph.D. Communication, Stanford University, 2007.
B.A. Psychology (Honors) with a concentration
in Computer Science, Haverford College, 2001
The Proteus Effect: Behavioral Modification via Transformations
of Digital Self-Representation (pdf)
Self-Representation and Social Interaction
in Virtual Environments
Senior Research Scientist, Ubisoft, San Francisco, CA. 08/12 - Present.
Member of Research Staff , Palo Alto Research
Center, Palo Alto, CA. 09/07 - 07/12.
Research Assistant, Department of Communication,
Stanford University, CA. 09/03 - 09/09.
Virtual Worlds Expert, Qwest Communications. 09/07 - 12/08.
Business Analyst, Sony Online Entertainment,
San Diego, CA. 09/06 - 08/07.
Research Assistant, Palo Alto Research Center,
Palo Alto, CA. 09/05 - 08/07.
Summer Intern, Palo Alto Research Center, Palo
Alto, CA. 06/05 - 09/05.
Consultant, Seriosity, Palo
Alto, CA. 06/2004 - 10/2006.
Summer Intern, Advanced Interactive Systems,
Monterey, CA. 06/04 - 09/04.
Research Assistant, Accenture Technology Labs,
Accenture, Chicago, IL. 07/01 - 03/03.
Refereed Journal Articles
Yee., N., Ducheneaut, N., Nelson, L. (2012). Online Gaming Motivations Scale: Development and Validation. Proceedings of CHI 2012, 2803-2806. PDF
Yee, N., Ducheneaut, N., Shiao, H.T., Nelson, L. (2012). Through the Azerothian Looking Glass: Mapping In-Game Preferences to Real World Demographics. Proceedings of CHI 2012, 2811-2814. PDF
Yee., N., Ducheneaut, N., Nelson, L., Likarish, P. (2011). Introverted Elves and Conscientious Gnomes. The Expression of Personality in World of Warcraft. Proceedings of CHI 2011, 753-762. PDF
Yee, N., Ducheneaut, N., Yao, M., Nelson, L. (2011). Do Men Heal More When in Drag? Conflicting Identity Cues Between User and Avatar. Proceedings of CHI 2011, 773-776. PDF
Yee, N., Harris, H., Jabon, M., Bailenson, J.N. (2011). The Expression of Personality in Virtual Worlds. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 2, 5-12. PDF
Harris, H., Bailenson, J.N., Nielsen A. & Yee, N. (2009). The evolution of social behavior over time in Second Life. PRESENCE: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 18 (6), 294-303. PDF
Yee, N., Ellis, J., & Ducheneaut, N. (2009). The Tyranny of Embodiment. Artifact, 2, 1-6. PDF
Williams, D., Consalvo, M., Caplan, S., & Yee, N. (2009). Looking for gender (LFG): Gender roles and behaviors among online gamers. Journal of Communication, 59, 700-725. PDF
Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). The Difference Between Being and Seeing: The Relative Contribution of Self Perception and Priming to Behavioral Changes via Digital Self-Representation. Media Psychology, 12, 195-209. PDF
Caplan, S., Williams, D., & Yee, N. (2009). Problematic Internet Use and Psychosocial Well-Being Among MMO Players. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1312-1319. PDF
Johnson, N., Xu, C., Zhao, Z., Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Tita, G., & Hui, P. (2009). Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic. Physical Review E, 79, 066117. PDF
Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., & Ducheneaut, N.
(2009). The Proteus Effect: Implications of Transformed
Digital Self-Representation on Online and Offline Behavior. Communication Research,
36, 285-312. PDF
Ducheneaut, N., Wen, M., Yee, N., & Wadley, G. (2009). Body and mind: a study of avatar personalization in three virtual worlds. Proceedings of CHI 2009. PDF
Yee, N. (2009). Befriending Ogres and Wood-Elves: Relationship Formation and The Social Architecture of Norrath. Game Studies, 9. Link
Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N. (2008). A
method for longitudinal behavioral data collection in Second
Life. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments.
Williams, D., Yee, N., & Caplan, S. (2008).
Who plays, how much, and why? Debunking the stereotypical gamer
profile. Journal of Computer-Mediated
Communication, 13, 993-1018.
Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2007).
The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation
on Behavior. Human
Communication Research, 33, 271-290. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., Iyengar, S., Yee, N., & Collins,
N. (2008). Facial Similarity between Voters and Candidates
Causes Influence. Public Opinion Quarterly,
72, 935-961. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., & Yee, N. (2007).
Virtual interpersonal touch and digital chameleons. Journal
of Nonverbal Behavior, 31, 225-242. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Blascovich, J.,
Beall, A.C., Lundblad, N., & Jin, M. (2008).
The use of immersive virtual reality in the learning sciences:
Digital transformations of teachers, students, and social context.
The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17, 102-141. PDF
Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Rickertsen, K. (2007).
A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of the Inclusion and Realism
of Human-Like Faces on User Experiences in Interfaces. CHI
2007 Proceedings, 1-10. PDF [Best
Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Nickell, E., Moore,
R. (2007). The life and death of online gaming communities:
a look at guilds in World of Warcraft. CHI 2007 Proceedings,
839-848. PDF [Best Paper Nominee]
N., Bailenson, J.N., Urbanek, M., Chang, F., Merget, D. (2007).
The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of
Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments. The
Journal of CyberPsychology and Behavior,
10, 115-121. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Patel, K., & Beall,
A.C. (2007). Detecting Digital Chameleons. Computers
in Human Behavior, 24, 66-87. PDF
Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Nickell, E., Moore,
R. (2006). Building an MMO with Mass Appeal: A Look at Gameplay
in World of Warcraft. Games and Culture, 1, 281-317.
Williams, D., Ducheneaut, N., Li, X., Zhang,
Y., Yee, N., Nickell, E. (2006). From Tree House to Barracks:
The Social Life of Guilds in World of Warcraft. Games
1, 338-361. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Brave, S., Merget,
D., Koslow, D. (2007). Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Expressing
and Recognizing Emotions through Haptic Devices. Human-Computer
Interaction, 22, 325-353. PDF
Yee, N. (2006). Motivations for Play in Online
Games. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 9, 772-775. PDF
Yee, N. (2006). The Demographics, Motivations
and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively-Multiuser Online
Graphical Environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual
Environments, 15, 309-329. PDF
Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Nickell, E., and Moore,
R.J. (2006). "Alone Together? Exploring the Social Dynamics
of Massively Multiplayer Games." In conference proceedings
on human factors in computing systems CHI 2006, pp. 407-416.
April 22-27, Montreal, PQ, Canada. PDF [Best
Yee, N. (2006). The Labor of Fun: How Video
Games Blur the Boundaries of Work and Play. Games
and Culture, 1, 68-71. PDF
Bailenson, J.N. & Yee, N. (in press).
Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative
virtual environments. International Journal of Multimedia Tools and Applications. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Merget, D., & Schroeder,
R. (2006). The Effect of Behavioral Realism and Form
Realism of Real-Time Avatar Faces on Verbal Disclosure, Nonverbal
Disclosure, Emotion Recognition, and Copresence in Dyadic Interaction. PRESENCE:
Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., & Yee, N. (2006). A Longitudinal
Study of Task Performance, Head Movements, Subjective Report,
Simulator Sickness, and Transformed Social Interaction in Collaborative
Virtual Environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments,
Bailenson, J.N., Garland, P., Iyengar, S., & Yee,
N. (2006). Transformed Facial Similarity as a Political Cue:
A Preliminary Investigation. Political
Psychology, 27, 373-386. PDF
Bailenson, J.N. & Yee, N. (2005).
Digital Chameleons: Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures
in immersive virtual environments. Psychological Science,
16, 814-819. PDF
Refereed Conference Presentations
Debeauvais, T., Nardi, B., Schiano, D.J., Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N. (2011). If you build it they might stay: retention mechanisms in World of Warcraft. 6th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games. PDF
Schiano, D.J., Nardi, B., Debeauvais, T., Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N. (2011). A new look at World of Warcraft’s social landscape. 6th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games. PDF
Yee, N., & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk
A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking
on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual
Environments. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual
International Workshop on Presence. August 24 - 26, Cleveland,
Ohio, USA PDF
Yee, N. (2006). Motivation and Seduction in
Online Games. Games, Learning, and Society
2006, Madison, WI,
Yee, N. (2005). Motivations of Play in MMORPGs. DIGRA
2005, Vancouver, June, 2005.
Yee, N. (2005). The Demographics and Derived
Experiences of Users of Massively Multi-User Online Graphical
Environments. The 55th International Communicaton Association
Annual Conference, New York, May, 2005.
Bailenson, J., Yee, N. (2005). Digital Chameleons:
Assimilation of Nonverbal Gestures in Immersive Virtual Environments. The
55th International Communicaton Association Annual Conference, New York,
Invited Panelist, Games and Human Interaction:
Curriculum and Research. The 55th International Communicaton
Association Annual Conference, New York, May, 2005.
Bailenson, J. N., Garland, P., Iyengar, S., Yee,
N. (2005, in press) Facial Similarity as a Political Cue. The
55th International Communicaton Association Annual Conference,
New York, May, 2005.
Yee, N. (2009). Changing the Rules: Social Architectures in Virtual Worlds. In Bainbridge, W. (Ed.), Online Worlds: Convergence of the Real and Virtual (pp. 213-223). London: Springer. PDF
Yee, N. (2008). Maps of Digital Desires: Exploring
the Topography of Gender and Play in Online Games. In Kafai,
Y., Heeter, C., Denner, J., & Sun, J. (Eds.), Beyond
Barbie and Mortal Kombat: New Perspectives on Gender and Gaming (pp.
83-96). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. PDF
Ducheneaut, N & Yee, N. (2008). Collective
Solitude and Social Networks in World of Warcraft. In C. Romm-Livermore
& S. Setzekorn (Eds.). Social Networking Communities and
E-Dating Services: Concepts and Implications (pp.78-100). Hershey,
New York: Information Science Reference. PDF
Bailenson, J.N. & Yee. N. (2008).
Psychology in Communication Processes. In W. Donsbach (Ed.). International Encyclopedia of Communication. Washington,
D. C.: International Communication Association.
Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Blascovich,
J., & Guadagno,
R.E. (2008). Transformed Social Interaction in Mediated
Interpersonal Communication. In Konijn, E., Tanis, M.,
Utz, S. & Linden, A. (Eds.), Mediated Interpersonal Communication
(pp. 77-99). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF
Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Kim, A., & Tecarro,
J (2007). Sciencepunk: The influence of informed science
fiction on virtual reality research. In, Margret Grebowicz,
ed. The Joy of SF: Essays in Science and Technology Studies
(pp.147-164). Open Court Publishing. PDF
Yee, N. (2006). The Psychology of MMORPGs:
Emotional Investment, Motivations, Relationship Formation,
and Problematic Usage. In R. Schroeder & A. Axelsson
(Eds.), Avatars at Work and Play: Collaboration and Interaction
in Shared Virtual Environments (pp. 187-207). London: Springer-Verlag. PDF
Workshops and Panels
Inivted Panelist, Understanding the Player,
GDC 2007, March 5th, 2007.
Invited Participant, Beyond
Barbie and Mortal Kombat, May 7th - 9th, 2006.
Invited Panelist, Methods in Social Game Studies, GDC
2006, March 20th, 2006.
Invited Panelist, Communities and Communication
in MMOGs, Spring VON 2006, March 14th, 2006.
Invited Participant, Gaming the World,
UIUC, November 15th-16th, 2005.
Invited Participant, Ludium I: Conference
on Synthetic Worlds and Academic Research, September
29th - October 1st, 2005.
Invited Panelist, The Sharing Economies of Virtual
World, Institute for the Future - Annual Ten-Year Forecast
Retreat, Berkeley, April 13th, 2005.
Invited Moderator, Virtual Identity Panel, State
of Play II, New York, October 28th-30th, 2004.
Virtual People (Teaching Assistant),
Stanford University, Spring 2006
Virtual People (Teaching Assistant), Stanford
University, Winter 2005
Reviewer for Journals and Conferences
Communication Methods and Measures
Computer Human Interaction (CHI)
CyberPsychology and Behavior
Games and Culture
Human Communication Research
Journal of Human-Computer Studies
National Science Foundation (Human-Centered Computing)
Robert Johnson Foundation (Health Games)
Media / Press
The New York Times - Carey, B. (2008, December 14th). Standing in Someone Else's Shoes, Almost for Real.
New Scientist (2008, May 7th). Eight Ways to Get Exactly What You Want.
Newsweek - Begley, S. (2008, February, 25th). Our Imaginary Hotter Selves.
Discovery Channel (2007, December 19th).
Rise of the Video Game, Level 5.
The New York Times -
Boss, S. (2007, September, 9th). Even in a Virtual World, ‘Stuff’ Matters
Science - Miller, G. (2007, September 6th).
The Promise of Parallel Universes.
The Wall Street Journal - Alter, A. (2007,
August 10th). Is This Man Cheating on His Wife?
CNN International (2007, June 13th). CNN Future
SF Chronicle -
Sturrock, C. (2007, April 29th). Virtual become Reality at
Associated Press - Svensson, P. (2007, February
21st). Virtual Men Are Standoffish Too.
Nature.com - Giles, J. (2007, January 5th).
Social Sciences: Life's a Game.
Foreign Policy - Chen, C. (2007, January 5th).
New York Times -
Rosenbloom, S. (2006, November 16th). In Certain Circles, Two
is a Crowd.
ABC News - Chu. K. (2006, October 4th). Long
Live the Avatar.
Nature.com - Giles, J. (2006, September 11th).
Concept of 'personal space' survives in virtual reality.
Beyond the Headlines,
Bay Area ABC Affiliate (KGO). (2006, September, 10th).
Jennings, C. Online Gaming.
WashingtonPost.com - Khazan, O. (2006, August,
18th). Lost in an Online Fantasy World.
Atlanta Journal-Constitution - Pearson,
M. (2006, June 20th). Online worlds: Gaming role-players build
their alter egos.
WMTV local news, Madison NBC affiliate
J. (2006, June 16th). Video game addicts.
The Wall Street Journal - Kesmodel,
D. (2006, June 9th). Online gamers find offline love.
Business Week - Hof, R. (2006, April
21st). My virtual life.
The International Herald
Crampton, T. (2006, April 9th). Actual advertising in a virtual
The New Scientist - Biever, C. (2006,
February 25th). For a new personality, click here.
San Francisco Chronicle - Haddock,
V. (2006, February 12th). The online danger zone.
The Daytona Beach News - Girardin,
K. (2005, December 11th). Gamers balance virtual, real worlds.
Red Herring - Fehrenbacher, K. (2005,
November 24th). Gaming death stirs debate.
The Oklahoma Daily - Akins, K., Slater,
G., & Son, C.
(2005, November 8th). Fantasy fanatics: Massively multiplayer
online role-playing games have become very popular.
KUOW, Seattle NPR affiliate - Reynolds, R. (2005, October 14th). Are video
games just games?
Christian Science Monitor - Lamb,
G. (2005, October 13th). Are multiplayer online games more
compelling, more addictive?
Seed Magazine - Wittlin, M. (2005,
September 30th). Behavioral mimicry makes the heart grow fonder.
San Antonio Current - Delwiche, A.
(2005, August 11th). Online quality time.
Lawrence - Maines, S. (2005, June
4th). Gaming addiction growing.
Wired.com - Poulsen, K. (2005, May 31st).
AI Seduces Stanford Students.
CNET - Shim, R. & Borland, J.
(2005, May 19th). Can games grow beyond the hard-core set?
The Sunday Times - Uncredited (2005,
May 15th). Real money for virtual gold.
The Washington Post - Morin, R. (2005,
April 24th). Don't Tell Me Again.
Boulder Weekly - Warner, J. (2005,
March 31st). Brave new virtual world.
Maclean's - Snider, M. (2003, March
3rd). Wired to another word: Online games like EverQuest and
The Sims have become a new addiction.
The Philadelphia Inquirer - Valenza,
J. (2002, December 26th). Gamers are playing, maybe learning,
CNET.com - Becker, D. (2002, April 12th). When
games stop being fun.
The Washington Post - Schwartz, J.
(2000, May 17th). Silicon dreams: Real life and virtual life
intersect as technology affects the way we think and live.